Funding for this research was provided by:
Canadian Network for Research and Innovation in Machining Technology, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (10538042)
American Museum of Natural History
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-02-13
Received: 4 September 2018
Accepted: 11 January 2019
First Online: 13 February 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
: Plainfin midshipman fish are a common intertidal species and their populations are not endangered or threatened. All fish were collected in accordance with permits issued by the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (scientific licenses XR 50 2010, XR 126 2011, XR 14 2013, XR 121 2014, XR 81 2015, XR 94 2016, and XR 58 2017). All research procedures were approved by the McMaster University Animal Research Ethics Board (AUP’s #10-11-70 and #13-12-52) and the University of Victoria Animal Care Committee (Protocols 2015-009 and 2017-003).