Funding for this research was provided by:
University of Sydney (The Research Project grants 2019)
Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical Professional Cross Fund
the Joint Research Initiative grant from Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-11-30
Received: 20 May 2019
Accepted: 27 November 2019
First Online: 30 November 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.
: Our current experiment has been approved by the Human Ethics Committee of Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine for the use of the tissues and the associated deidentified clinical data (ZH2018ZDA33). The guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki on Medical Research involving human subjects has been strictly adhered to.
: The oral consent for surgery included consent for the tissues to be used for diagnostic and research purposes in a deidentified manner. A written explanation of the surgical procedures and the potential research use of the tissues was provided to all patients prior to surgery. All of the patients were adults who were older than 16 years.