Funding for this research was provided by:
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (PGSD3-459489- 2014, PGSD2–504356–2017)
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada - Discovery grant (CRSNG 355492)
Canada Research Chair in Evolutionary Demography and Conservation (CRC 229221)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-11-27
Received: 23 April 2019
Revised: 15 October 2019
Accepted: 22 October 2019
First Online: 27 November 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: Our use of animals followed all applicable national guidelines. Our handling of study animals was approved by the appropriate authorities and ethical committee: the Swedish Board of Agriculture (no. 35-846/03, 31-7885/07, 31-11102/12), the Uppsala Ethical Committee on Animal Experiments (no. C40/3, C47/9, C7/12), and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (no. 412-7327-09 Nv).
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.