Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (JP18Fm0108008)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-11-09
Received: 11 June 2019
Accepted: 3 October 2019
First Online: 9 November 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: The animal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University (approval numbers 16-0105 and 18-0037 for the antiserum preparation and the pathogenicity assessment, respectively). The experiments were performed according to the guidelines of the committee. The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, is accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, which it has maintained since 2007.