Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-03-28
Received: 4 November 2018
Accepted: 22 February 2019
First Online: 28 March 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: Dr. Joseph Helm, Ms. Melissa Helm, and Dr. Tammy Kindel have nothing to disclose. Dr. Rana Higgins is a proctor for Intuitive Surgical and a speaker for W.L. Gore. Dr. Jon Gould is a consultant for Torax Medical. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the hospitals participating in the ACS NSQIP are the source of the data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.
: IRB approval from our institution was obtained for the research study.
: This study was conducted using a large national database, ACS-NSQIP, with completely de-identified data.
: Informed consent was not needed as the ACS NSQIP data is not identifiable in any way and no individual patient or hospital information can be accessed. No protected health information was used for this project.