Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (18J10096, 17H03725)
Fujiwara Natural History Foundation (NA)
Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant (NA)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-07-05
Received: 20 December 2018
Accepted: 24 June 2019
First Online: 5 July 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
: Not applicable.
: Formal approval for the experiment was granted by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Hokkaido University (approval no. 28-2). Sampling was approved by the local government of Hokkaido Prefecture.