Funding for this research was provided by:
Institute for Urban and Minority Education, Teachers College, Columbia University (Graduate Research Assistant Funds)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-08-01
Received: 4 December 2018
Accepted: 30 April 2019
First Online: 1 August 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: Sonali Rajan, Charles C. Branas, Dawn Myers, and Nina Agrawal declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: This article is a systematic review of existing peer-reviewed research and did involve the collection of data from human subjects nor review of any raw data involving human subjects. As such, and consistent with Teachers College, Columbia University IRB protocol, informed consent was not required (nor sought).