Text and Data Mining valid from 2018-04-09
First Online: 9 April 2018
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: Study procedures were reviewed, approved, and monitored by Institutional Review Boards at both study settings. All participants provided written informed consent to participate.
: Research reported in this manuscript was supported by grant 034083 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Lozier was funded in part by Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center at the VA Portland Health Care System. The work was also supported by resources from the VA Health Services Research and Development-funded Center to Improve Veteran Involvement in Care at the VA Portland Health Care System (CIN 13-404). Dr. Yarborough has received grant support from Purdue Pharma LP, and the Industry PMR Consortium, a consortium of 10 companies working together to conduct FDA-required post-marketing studies that assess known risks related to extended-release, long-acting opioid analgesics. Dr. Deyo receives royalties from UpToDate for authoring topics on low back pain. He received a financial award from NuVasive, as part of a lifetime achievement award from the International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine. No other author reports having any potential conflict of interest with this study. The content of this manuscript is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the National Institute on Drug Abuse.