Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-04-15
First Online: 15 April 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: None of the authors has a financial interest in any of the products, devices, or drugs mentioned in this manuscript.
: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. This is a retrospective review of a nationally available, clinical database containing only deidentified data. The dataset does not have any variables that would allow for patient, surgeon, or institution identification. For this type of study, neither an institutional review board approval nor formal consent was required.