Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-11-06
Received: 26 June 2019
Revised: 27 August 2019
Accepted: 24 September 2019
First Online: 6 November 2019
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. The study utilizes data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) 2016 Time Series Study, a publically available dataset with identifying information removed to protect respondent confidentiality. Participation in the ANES is voluntary, and the procedures for the ANES are overseen by the ANES advisory board, University of Michigan, and Stanford University.