Text and Data Mining valid from 2020-01-20
Received: 22 January 2019
Accepted: 21 July 2019
First Online: 20 January 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: DGK (none), CLF (none), MEJ (none), NEM (none), BY (grants and personal fees from K2M, DePuy Synthes Spine, and NuVasive; personal fees from Medtronic, Orthopediatrics, Stryker, Globus, and Biogen; grants from Setting Scoliosis Straight Foundation, outside the submitted work; in addition, BY has a patent K2M with royalties paid), VVU (personal fees from DePuy Synthes Spine and OrthoPediatrics, outside the submitted work), PON (other from DePuy Synthes, K2M, OrthoPediatrics, NuVasive, and AlphaTec, during the conduct of the study; grants and other from Setting Scoliosis Straight Foundation; other from Rady Children’s Specialists; grants, personal fees, and nonfinancial support from DePuy Synthes Spine and K2M; grants and other from SRS; grants from EOS Imaging; personal fees from Thieme Publishing; grants from NuVasive; other from Electrocore; personal fees from Cubist; other from International Pediatric Orthopedic Think Tank; grants, nonfinancial support, and other from Orthopediatrics; grants and nonfinancial support from Alphatech; grants from Mazor Robotics, outside the submitted work; in addition, PON has a patent “Anchoring Systems and Methods for Correcting Spinal Deformities”  with royalties paid to DePuy Synthes Spine; a patent “Low Profile Spinal Tethering Systems”  licensed to DePuy Spine, Inc.; a patent “Screw Placement Guide”  licensed to DePuy Spine, Inc.; a patent “Compressor for Use in Minimally Invasive Surgery”  licensed to DePuy Spine, Inc.; and a patent “Posterior Spinal Fixation” pending to K2M).
: This project does not involve live humans or animals; so IRB and IACUC approval are not necessary.