Funding for this research was provided by:
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (01ER0816, 01ER1506)
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster
Received: 23 November 2021
Accepted: 20 June 2022
First Online: 5 July 2022
: The authors have no competing interests to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.
: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The BiDirect Study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Münster (No. 2009–391-f-S) and the Westfalian Chamber of Physicians in Münster, North-Rhine-Westfalia, Germany. The HaBIDS study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Hannover Medical School (No. 2021–2013) and by the Federal Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information in Germany.
: Written informed consent was obtained from all participants in case of the BiDirect and HaBIDS cohort studies.