Funding for this research was provided by:
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (72190079)
Received: 21 June 2022
Accepted: 12 July 2023
First Online: 20 July 2023
: The authors declare no conflict of interest or relationships with industry associated with this article.
: The investigation was conducted in compliance with all applicable ethical norms, including the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and the ethical standards and its later amendments. The protocol for all three CNHS received the approval of the ethical committee at Universidad Católica de Chile, the institution in charge of all three surveys. All participants gave their written consent for the study. Data on mortality and its linkage with CNHS’ participant identifier was requested to the Ministry of Health through the Chilean Transparency Law platform. This research was based on publicly anonymized data.