Received: 17 December 2018
Accepted: 28 February 2019
First Online: 19 March 2019
Conflict of Interest
: Dr. Einav has received funding for travel, given lectures, owns patents with and/or performed consultancy work for Zoll, Medtronic and Diasorin, has participated in multicentre trials run by Artisanpharma, Eisai and Astra Zeneca. Dr. Frat reports grants from the French Ministry of Health; grants, personal fees and non- financial support from Fisher & Paykel HeathCare; personal fees and non-financial support from SOS oxygene, outside the submitted work. Dr. Azoulay reports that Fisher & Payckle provided the optiflow device for the HIGH trial (to all the centers). They also provided support to my research group to organize research meetings. He also provides lectures for Alexion Baxter MSD Pfizer and Ablynx. Dr. Mercat receives fees for serving on a steering committee from Faron Pharmaceuticals, consulting fees from Air Liquide Medical Systems, grant support and lecture fees from Fisher and Paykel and Covidien, and lecture fees from Pfizer, ResMed, and Drager. Dr. Demoule reports personal fees from Medtronic, grants, personal fees and non-financial support from Philips, personal fees from Baxter, personal fees from Hamilton, grants and personal fees from Fisher & Paykel, grants from French Ministry of Health, personal fees from Getinge, personal fees from Respinor, outside the submitted work. Dr. Lemiale reports grants from the French Ministry of Health. The research group (GRRR-OH) she belongs to received financial support from Fisher & Paykel HeathCare; Pfizer, Gilead, Astellas And Alexion, outside this submitted work. Prof. Antonio Pesenti received consulting honorarium from Xenion, Maquet and Baxter outside the present work. He is also an inventor of patented devices for respiratory support and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal. Dr. Mauri received speaking fees from Fisher and Paykel unrelated to the present work. Dr. Mancebo reports receiving personal fees from Faron and Medtronic. Fisher Paykel and A-Lung provided medical equipment for multicenter trials (high flow nasal oxygen therapy and extracorporeal CO2 removal respectively). IMT Medical provided travel and hotel expenses to attend a meeting. Dr. Brochard’s laboratory has received equipment and/or research grants from Fisher Paykel (high-flow), Medtronic Covidien (PAV+), Air Liquide (Helium, CPR), Philips (sleep), Sentec (tcPCO2), General Electric (ultrasound) and consulting from Baxter. Dr. Burns received a grant from Fisher & Paykel to conduct an observational study.
: An approval by an ethics committee was not applicable