Funding for this research was provided by:
Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme (11-14-08)
National Institute for Health Research (RP-2015-06-018)
Received: 24 May 2019
Accepted: 5 August 2019
First Online: 19 August 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the MRC, the National Health Service (NHS), the NIHR, or the Department of Health. ACG reports receiving speaker fees from Amomed Pharma, consulting fees from Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Baxter Healthcare, Bristol-Myers Squibb and GlaxoSmithKline and grant support from HCA International, all paid to his institution; GDP receives fees for serving on an advisory board for GlaxoSmithKline; DFM receives consulting fees from Peptinnovate, Sobi, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, and GlaxoSmithKline and fees to his institution from GlaxoSmithKline for participating in a clinical trial, and being named on a patent related to a new treatment for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (Canada, US, Australia, and European Union patent no., WO 2011073685, issued to Queen’s University Belfast). MS receives consulting fees and grant support from Apollo Therapeutics, Baxter, Deltex Medical, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Medical Technology Associates II and New Beta Innovation all paid to his institution, and heads a Data Safety Monitoring Board on behalf of Shionogi. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.