Received: 21 March 2019
Accepted: 17 July 2019
First Online: 29 July 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
: This study utilized de-identified publicly available data and therefore formal consent is not required.
: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the hospitals participating in the ACS NSQIP are the source of the data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.