Funding for this research was provided by:
RJ Reynolds Vapor Company through its affiliate RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company
Received: 16 October 2017
Accepted: 10 April 2018
First Online: 3 May 2018
Compliance with ethical standards
: The study was reviewed and approved by Chesapeake Institutional Review Board (Columbia, MD) and was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards in the Declaration of Helsinki and applicable sections of the US Code of Federal Regulations and ICH E6 Good Clinical Practices.
: MF Stiles, LR Campbell, and T Jin are full-time employees of RAI Services Company. RAI Services Company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Reynolds American Inc., which is a wholly owned subsidiary of British American Tobacco plc. DW Graff is a full-time employee of Celerion and provided the original draft of the manuscript. RV Fant and JE Henningfield are full-time employees of PinneyAssociates, which provides consulting services on smoking cessation and tobacco harm minimization (including nicotine replacement therapy and electronic vapor products) to Niconovum, USA, Inc., RJ Reynolds Vapor Company, and RAI Services Company (all subsidiaries of Reynolds American Inc.). JE Henningfield also owns an interest in intellectual property for a novel nicotine medication. Through PinneyAssociates, Fant and Henningfield provide consulting services to pharmaceutical companies on abuse potential assessment, and the regulation of substances with a potential for abuse.