Funding for this research was provided by:
Medical Research Council
British Heart Foundation
Arthritis Research UK
International Osteoporosis Foundation
NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre
NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre
University of Southampton
Received: 17 July 2018
Accepted: 18 September 2018
First Online: 22 September 2018
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: CC reports personal fees (outside the submitted work) from Alliance for Better Bone Health, Amgen, Eli Lilly, GSK, Medtronic, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Servier, Takeda and UCB. EMD reports personal fees (outside the submitted work) from Pfizer Healthcare and from the UCB Discussion panel. RPV, LDW, HES, MTSS and SMR declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: The baseline Hertfordshire Cohort Study had ethical approval from the Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire Local Research Ethics Committee and the follow-up had ethical approval from the East and North Hertfordshire Ethical Committees.
: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
: All participants gave signed consent to participate in the study and for their health records to be accessed in the future.