Funding for this research was provided by:
Medical Research Council
British Heart Foundation
Arthritis Research UK
International Osteoporosis Foundation
NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre
University of Southampton
NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre
Received: 12 March 2019
Accepted: 10 May 2019
First Online: 11 June 2019
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: CC reports personal fees (outside the submitted work) from Alliance for Better Bone Health, Amgen, Eli Lilly, GSK, Medtronic, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Servier, Takeda and UCB. EMD reports personal fees (outside the submitted work) from Pfizer Healthcare and from the UCB Discussion panel. MHE received (outside the submitted work) an unrestricted project grant from Servier; conference attendance support from Eli Lilly, UCB and Pfizer and course attendance support from Chugai and Abbvie. LW, CS and KAW declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
: The baseline Hertfordshire Cohort Study had ethical approval from the Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire Local Research Ethics Committee and the follow-up had ethical approval from the East and North Hertfordshire Ethical Committees.
: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
: All participants gave signed consent to participate in the study and for their health records to be accessed in the future.