Funding for this research was provided by:
Terveyden Tutkimuksen Toimikunta (307232 and 295334)
H2020 European Research Council (reported later)
FP7 Ideas: European Research Council (will be reported later)
European Structural Funds; European Social Fund by Regional Council of North-Savo and State Research Funding (reported later, several)
Received: 22 February 2019
Accepted: 5 August 2019
First Online: 11 October 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: The study was approved by the ethics committee of Kuopio University hospital (KUH) and by the ethics committee of the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare which gives the permissions to use the data from the Hospital Discharge Register (HILMO). The permission to use the Special Reimbursement and Prescription registers was given by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (SII). The permission to use national mortality data was given by Statistics Finland. Informed consent was not deemed necessary by the Ethics committees or register maintainers because participants were not contacted. The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki.
: JHE, AMT, RPR, JHA, MHI and HMI have nothing to disclose and declare that there is no conflict of interest. JM is a partner of ESiOR Oy, which carries out health economic and outcome research studies for pharmaceutical, medical device and food companies.