Funding for this research was provided by:
Japanese Science Progress Society KAKENHI Grants (17K11156)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2020-02-06
Received: 19 July 2019
Accepted: 22 January 2020
First Online: 6 February 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: This study was conducted according to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the institutional ethics review board of Dokkyo Medical University Hospital (Approval No. 27144).
: Before surgery, written consent regarding the use of surgical samples fixed in buffered formalin and medical records, as well as data publication was requested, and protection of patient privacy in future studies was guaranteed through a signed consent form approved by our institutional Committee on Human Rights in Research. Consequently, each patient in this cohort signed the consent form approved by our institutional Committee on Human Rights in Research prior to nephroureterectomy. Furthermore, surviving patients provided written consent for analysis of PD-L1 and TILD of the surgical samples and laboratory data of peripheral blood, through a signed form approved by our institutional Committee on Human Rights in Research (Approval No. 27144). In cases of patient death, consent for publication was sought orally from next of kin of the participant. All samples were anonymized before analysis to protect patient privacy.