Funding for this research was provided by:
National Science Foundation (DBS-9021946, SBR-9319909, IOS-LTREB-1052693, BCS-0452315)
National Institutes of Health (R01 AI 058715)
Received: 21 September 2019
Revised: 8 January 2020
Accepted: 10 January 2020
First Online: 27 January 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
: All applicable international, national, and institutional guidelines for the use of animals were followed. Permission to conduct data collection at Gombe National Park was granted and approved by all applicable governing bodies in Tanzania, including Tanzania National Parks, the Tanzanian Wildlife Research Institute, and the Tanzanian Commission for Science and Technology.