Funding for this research was provided by:
Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (R21EB022369)
Ronda Stryker and William Johnston fund at Harvard Medical School
First Online: 9 April 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: Study staff informed patients about the study and obtained written consent. Approvals were received from the Partners In Health/Inshuti Mu Buzima (PIH/IMB) Research Committee and the Rwandan National Health Research Committee, and ethical approvals from the Rwanda National Ethics Committee (Kigali, Rwanda; no. 848/RNEC/2016) and Partners Human Research Committee (Boston, Massachusetts, USA; no. 2016P001943/MGH). The study was approved by the Rwandan Ministry of Health before the start of data collection.