Accepted: 21 October 2022
First Online: 15 November 2022
: All authors had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. All authors have approved the final article. The ACS-NSQIP and participating hospitals are the source of these data; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.
: The Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board determined this study exempt from review as it used publicly available deidentified data.