Funding for this research was provided by:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NNX16AO27H)
National Science Foundation (1255058)
Received: 15 October 2018
Revised: 6 June 2019
Accepted: 8 June 2019
First Online: 19 June 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted (Stony Brook University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee permit # 2011-1881-R1-6.19.20-BI, Antarctic Conservation Act permit #2016-013, United States Department of Agriculture permit #126,132).