Funding for this research was provided by:
Pew Charitable Trusts
Received: 24 April 2020
Revised: 1 October 2020
Accepted: 7 October 2020
First Online: 15 October 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: Fieldwork was permitted under the U.S. Antarctic Conservation Act (permit ACA 2019–001, ACA 2020–010, ACA 2020–011). Observations of King penguins were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Stony Brook University (2011–1881-R2-6.19.20-BI).