Received: 29 October 2019
Accepted: 29 January 2020
First Online: 17 February 2020
Conflict of interest
: Author R Ramasamy has the following potential disclosures: Coloplast—Consultant, Boston Scientific—Investigator, Endo—Investigator, Advisory Board, Aytu Biosciences—Investigator, Advisory Board, Direx—Investigator. Authors RJ Fantus, SD Lokeshwar, and TP Kohn have no conflicts of interest to declare.
: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, NCHS IRB/ERB Protocol Number: NHANES 2017–2018: Protocol #2018-01 (Effective beginning October 26, 2017), Continuation of Protocol #2011-17 (Effective through October 26, 2017), NHANES 2015–2016: Continuation of Protocol #2011-17, NHANES 2013–2014: Continuation of Protocol #2011-17, NHANES 2011–2012: Protocol #2011-17) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Health information collected in the NHANES is kept in strictest confidence. During the informed consent process, survey participants assured that data collected will be used only for stated purposes and will not be disclosed or released to others without the consent of the individual or the establishment in accordance with section 308(d) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242m).