Funding for this research was provided by:
British Heart Foundation (RE/18/6/34217)
University of Glasgow
HDR UK (Edin-1)
Received: 29 June 2020
Accepted: 19 August 2020
First Online: 26 August 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: UK Biobank received ethical approval from the North West Multi-Centre Research Ethics Committee (REC reference: 16/NW/0274) and was conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.
: All participants gave written informed consent for data collection, analysis, and record linkage. All participants gave written informed consent for publication of research.