Funding for this research was provided by:
Munich Cluster of Systems Neurology
Helmholtz Virtual Institute (VH-VI-510, VH-VI-510)
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JP16H05379, JP17H05091, JP18K19515)
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (JP18ek0109316)
Mochida Memorial Foundation for Medical and Pharmaceutical Research
Takeda Science Foundation
SENSHIN Medical Research Foundation
Hermann und Lilly Schilling-Stiftung für medizinische Forschung im Stifterverband
Seventh Framework Programme (617198)
the Swiss ALS Foundation (None, None)
Received: 29 May 2019
Revised: 30 September 2019
Accepted: 1 October 2019
First Online: 23 October 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: CH collaborates with Denali Therapeutics on a topic not related to <i>C9orf72</i>, participated on one advisory board meeting of Biogen, and received a speaker honorarium from Novartis and Roche. All other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants or participants’ families included in this study.