Funding for this research was provided by:
American Heart Association (18SFRN34110067, 18SFRN34170442)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01 HL111314)
Received: 13 November 2020
Revised: 26 December 2020
Accepted: 4 January 2021
First Online: 16 January 2021
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: All surgical patients provided informed consent for research use of discarded atrial tissues. Prior to 2008, verbal consent was obtained and documented in the patient medical records in a process approved by the Cleveland Clinic Institutional Review Board (IRB, project 18-1501).