Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (RC2DA029475, R01HD061414, R24HD075489)
Received: 27 January 2017
Accepted: 18 July 2017
First Online: 29 July 2017
Compliance with ethical standards
: Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition and Genetics (PING): RC2DA029475. Pediatric (Longitudinal) Imaging, Neurocognition and Genetics (PLING): R01HD061414. Role of Emotion and Choice in Learning (REaCH): R24HD075489.
: All procedures performed were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of California, San Diego. Verbal assent was obtained for all participants under 7 years, and written assent was obtained for all participants 7 years and older. Parents or guardians provided written consent.
: The baseline imaging data for a small portion of participants included in the current study are available from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genomics (PING) data set through the NIMH Data Archive (https://data-archive.nimh.nih.gov). Additional data are available by request from the senior author (TLJ).
: Anders M. Dale is a founder of and holds equity interest in Cortechs Labs, La Jolla, CA, USA, and serves on its scientific advisory board. The terms of this arrangement have been reviewed and approved by UCSD in accordance with its conflict of interest policies. The other co-authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.