Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 1 July 2020
Revised: 23 September 2020
Accepted: 28 September 2020
First Online: 6 October 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: This retrospective study has been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the Helsinki Declaration on human subjects and testing and its later amendments. Although retrospective file research falls outside the scope of the Dutch Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act and, therefore, strictly considered does not require full ethical review by the regional medical ethical review committee (METC), the study proposal has been submitted for ethical review and assessment of other regulations. The METC Zuidwest Holland approved the study protocol, as well as the Scientific Committee and Board of Directors of the hospital.
: All participants provided informed consent for registration by the Dutch Paediatric Surveillance System (NSCK). Additional parental consent was required for patients younger than 16 years of age. Data included in the NSCK database involves general information (age, sex), intoxication characteristics (blood alcohol concentration, lab results) and substance use patterns. Partial waiver of informed consent has been provided for extracting data on follow-up from patient’s files, as it would be impracticable to obtain full informed consent of each patient without the risk of violating medical confidentially.