Received: 20 May 2020
Revised: 13 July 2020
Accepted: 27 July 2020
First Online: 7 August 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: There are not conflicts of interest, and disclosures outside of submitted work were provided in the Conflict of Interest forms. Disclosures outside of submitted work: JCW- Royalties – Biomet, Seaspine, Amedica, DePuy Synthes; Investments/Options – Bone Biologics, Pearldiver, Electrocore, Surgitech; Board of Directors - North American Spine Society, AO Foundation (20,000 honorariums for board position, plus travel for board meetings), Cervical Spine Research Society; Editorial Boards - Spine, The Spine Journal, Clinical Spine Surgery, Global Spine Journal; Fellowship Funding (paid directly to institution): AO Foundation; ZB- consultancy: Cerapedics, The Scripps Research Institute, Xenco Medical (past), AO Spine (past); Research Support: SeaSpine (past, paid to the institution), Next Science (paid directly to institution), Motion Metrix (paid directly to institution); North American Spine Society: committee member; Lumbar Spine Society: Co-chair Research committee, AOSpine Knowledge Forum Degenerative: Associate member; AOSNA Research committee- committee member.
: Institutional approval by University of Southern California.