Funding for this research was provided by:
American Parkinson Disease Association
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (U54-NS110435)
Received: 21 September 2020
Accepted: 18 December 2020
First Online: 27 January 2021
Compliance with ethical standards
: Anna I. Wernick, Ronald L. Walton, Alexandra I. Soto-Beasley, Shunsuke Koga, and Rebecca R. Valentino report no disclosures. Michael G. Heckman is a Statistical Editor of Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, and is on the editorial board of Molecular Neurodegeneration. Lukasz M. Milanowski is supported by the Polish National Agency for Academic Exchange Iwanowska’s Programme PPN/IWA/2018/1/00006/U/00001/01. Dorota Hoffman-Zacharska report no disclosures. Dariusz Koziorowski report no disclosures. Anhar Hassan is on the editorial board of Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, and receives research support from Intrabio. Ryan J. Uitti is an Associate Editor of Neurology. William P. Cheshire is an Associate Editor of Clinical Autonomic Research and is on the editorial boards of Autonomic Neuroscience and Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. Wolfgang Singer received research support from NIH (R01NS092625, U54NS065736), FDA (R01FD004789), Sturm Foundation, and Mayo Funds. He is associate editor of Clinical Autonomic Research and serves on the editorial board of Autonomic Neuroscience. He has advisory board and consulting agreements with Lundbeck, Catalyst, and Astellas. Zbigniew K. Wszolek receives research support from P50-NS072187, NIH/NIA (primary) and NIH/NINDS (secondary) 1U01AG045390-01A1, Mayo Clinic Center for Regenerative Medicine, the gift from Carl Edward Bolch, Jr., and Susan Bass Bolch, The Sol Goldman Charitable Trust, and Donald G. and Jodi P. Heeringa, the Haworth Family Professorship in Neurodegenerative Diseases fund, and by the Albertson Parkinson's Research Foundation. He serves as Co-Editor-in-Chief of Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska and is on the editorial boards of European Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical and Experimental Medical Letters, and Wiadomosci Lekarskie; holds and has contractual rights for receipt of future royalty payments from patents for “A Novel Polynucleotide Involved in Heritable Parkinson’s Disease”; and received royalties from publishing Parkinsonism and Related Disorders (Elsevier, 2016, 2017) and the European Journal of Neurology (Wiley Blackwell, 2016, 2017). ZKW serves as PI or Co-PI on Abbvie, Inc. (M15-562 and M15-563), Biogen, Inc. (228PD201) grant, and Biohaven Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (BHV4157-206 and BHV3241-301). He serves as PI of the Mayo Clinic American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) Information and Referral Center, and as Co-PI of the Mayo Clinic APDA Center for Advanced Research. Dennis W. Dickson (DWD) receives support from P50-AG016574, P50-NS072187, P01-AG003949, and CurePSP: Foundation for PSP | CBD and Related Disorders. DWD is an editorial board member of Acta Neuropathologica, Annals of Neurology, Brain, Brain Pathology, and Neuropathology and is Editor in Chief of American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease and International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology. Phillip A. Low receives support from Supported by NIH (P01NS44233, U54NS065736, R01 FD004789, R01 NS092625, Cure MSA Foundation, Sturm and Mayo Funds. Owen A. Ross (OAR) receives support from R01-NS078086, P50-NS072187, and U54 NS100693, The Little Family Foundation, and the Michael J. Fox Foundation. OAR is an editorial board member of American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease and Molecular Neurodegeneration.
: Written consent from each subject or next-of-kin was collected for all patients included in this study and IRB approval was obtained from the Mayo Clinic institutional review board for ethical conduct of research.