Funding for this research was provided by:
Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Canada Research Chairs
Received: 17 January 2019
Revised: 18 June 2019
Accepted: 19 June 2019
First Online: 12 July 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: Drs. Birmingham and Giffin report Grants from Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Grants from The Arthritis Society, outside of the submitted work. Dr. Birmingham also reports Grants from Canada Research Chairs Program, outside of the submitted work. Dr. Eckstein reports Grants from NIH, Grants from EU FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN, during the conduct of the study; personal fees from Chondrometrics GmbH, Ainring, Germany, personal fees from MerckKGaA, personal fees from Samumed, personal fees from Tissuegene, personal fees from Servier, personal fees from Roche, personal fees from Medtronic, Grants from Orthotrophix, Grants from MerckKgaA, Grants from Samumed, Grants from Tissuegene, Grants from Boston Imaging Core Lab, outside the submitted work. Drs. Wirth and Maschek report personal fees from Chondrometrics GmbH, Ainring, Germany. Drs. Moyer and Chronik have nothing to disclose.
: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.