Funding for this research was provided by:
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK Government (This study was financially supported by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government (Defra Project SE3277).)
Received: 19 February 2019
Revised: 5 June 2019
Accepted: 14 June 2019
First Online: 1 July 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: The trapping, husbandry and care of all animals held in captivity and all procedures performed in this study were approved by the Animal Welfare Ethical Review Body (AWERB) at APHA, as required by the Animals (Scientific Procedures Act) 1986. This included necessary licences for the capture and holding of subject animals as well as ethical oversight of the regulated procedures and the scientific program. This level of care was compatible with European Directive 2010/63/EU.