Received: 18 October 2019
Accepted: 23 January 2020
First Online: 13 February 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: Ethical or Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval and informed consent are exempted from this study because it is based on secondary data, namely the 1996–2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the HRS Cross-Wave Tracker file.
: The author certifies that no conflict of interest exists regarding this manuscript and there is no connection, financial or otherwise, that might imply or introduce bias in any aspect of my work in review of the manuscript. This manuscript has not been considered for publication elsewhere. No similar works have been submitted elsewhere.
: Not applicable.