Funding for this research was provided by:
Economic and Social Research Council (ES/L014718/1, ES/N003098/1)
National Institute of Mental Health (R01 MH092118)
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH (R01 HD042608)
National Institute on Drug Abuse , the National Institute of Mental Health and OBSSR, NIH (UG3/UH3 OD023389)
Received: 10 June 2019
Accepted: 26 June 2020
First Online: 4 July 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: Ruth Sellers, Gordon T. Harold, Anita Thapar, Jenae M. Neiderhiser, Jody M. Ganiban, David Reiss, Daniel S. Shaw, Misaki N. Natsuaki and Leslie D. Leve declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work were in accordance with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional committees, and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments, or comparable ethical standards.
: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
: Ethics approval for this study was granted by was granted by the University of Oregon Institutional Review Board (Protocol Number: 04262013.036).