Funding for this research was provided by:
Hamburg Department of Health and Consumer Protection
Text and Data Mining valid from 2018-02-12
First Online: 12 February 2018
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: Gerhard Meyer has received grants for gambling research from the German Research Foundation, the Federal Ministry of Health, the Ministries of Health of North Rhine-Westphalia, Hamburg and Bremen, the Ministry of the Interior of Hesse and Lower Saxony, and several gambling providers. Jens Kalke has received grants for gambling research from the Federal Ministry of Health, the Ministries of Health of Hamburg, Hesse and Schleswig-Holstein, several federal lottery companies and state-licenced casinos. Tobias Hayer and Tim Brosowski declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: All procedures performed were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments. A written declaration of agreement from parents was a general precondition of participation in the study. In addition and regardless of this, the young persons were able at any time to refuse to participate in the survey. Matching of an individual’s questionnaires from different stages for data analysis purposes relied on a coding system that guaranteed the anonymity of participants in all cases.