Funding for this research was provided by:
Hugh Hawkins Research Fellowship for the Study of Hopkins History
Accepted: 12 June 2021
First Online: 2 August 2021
: The corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
: Sources obtained from the Adolf Meyer Collection (AMC) from the Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives are cited using the three-part catalogue codes outlined in the finding aid (ExternalRef removed). These numbers represent the ‘series’ (i.e. topical grouping), ‘unit’ (i.e. section within the series, when relevant), and the folder or box in which these materials were located. To consult these documents, please contact the Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.
: Unpublished documents containing protected health information (including medical records, transcripts from staff conferences, correspondences with patients and family members, reports from social services, and data from keysorter cards) are cited using numeric IDs, followed by brief descriptions of the type of source. These IDs were generated by the author and bear no relation to the record numbers generated at the time of admission or during subsequent research projects. The catalogue code described above was added to sources collected from the AMC, with folder numbers being omitted to protect the identity of each patient. Patients discussed in the main text are referred to by pseudonyms designated by the author. To consult these documents, please contact the Privacy Board, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.
: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.