Funding for this research was provided by:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016-M-9030)
American Brain Tumor Association
Musella Foundation For Brain Tumor Research and Information
National Brain Tumor Society
Zelda Dorin Tetenbaum Memorial Fund
National Cancer Institute (HHSN261201800176P)
Uncle Kory Foundation
Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (RP160097T)
Received: 15 April 2019
Accepted: 11 June 2019
First Online: 17 June 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: There are no conflicts of interest to disclose.
: This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. This study was approved as an exempt study by the University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center Institutional Review Board.
: This was a retrospective study using de-identified national cancer registries. Thus, formal consent was not required.