Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (P2CHD041028)
Department for International Development-Economic and Social Research Council Growth Research Programme (ES/L012065/1)
Accepted: 15 September 2020
First Online: 3 October 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: Dr. Ghimire is the Director of the Institute for Social and Environmental Research Nepal (ISER-N) in Nepal that collected the data for the research reported here. Dr. Ghimire’s conflict of interest management plan is approved and monitored by the Regents of the University of Michigan. All other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: Procedures involving human subjects were approved by the University of Michigan Health Sciences and Behavioral Sciences Institutional Review Board (HUM 00099969) and Nepal’s Institute for Social and Environmental Research in Institutional Review Board (IRB 00002109) and has an Assurance of Compliance approved by the Office for Human Research Protections (FWA 00004864).
: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects prior to interviews.