Funding for this research was provided by:
new york university research challenge fund
national cancer institute (U54CA229974)
Accepted: 19 October 2021
First Online: 31 October 2021
: This study is a secondary data analysis of the publicly available data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (PATH). All data have been de-identified (by Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research before releasing to researchers) and the current research involved no human participants and/or animals.
: This study is a secondary data analysis of publicly available data. No informed consent form was concerned.
: DC, BL, YX, and JH report no financial or other relationship relevant to the subject of this article. SX receives the research grants from NYU Research Challenge Fund and NIH/NCI supplement award through Grant U54CA229974. RN receives funding from the Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products via contractual mechanisms with Westat and the National Institutes of Health. The work presented here is independent of this funding, and does not represent the views or opinions of any government institutes or agencies.