Funding for this research was provided by:
Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences (Dissertation Improvement Grant #1303682)
Institute of Education Sciences (R305B080027 to Northwestern University)
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation (Support through Emerging Scholars' Group at Arizona State University)
Northwestern University (Sociology Department MacArthur Research Grant; Graduate Research Grant; NUIT Technology Grant)
First Online: 7 February 2019
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: All research included in this article was approved by the Northwestern University IRB and the Chicago Public Schools RRB and performed in a way consistent with the ethical standards articulated in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its subsequent amendments and Section 12 (“Informed Consent”) of the ASA’s Code of Ethics. All participants and parents gave informed consent prior to research participation and all information was kept confidential.