Received: 6 January 2021
Accepted: 8 February 2021
First Online: 16 February 2021
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors have no significant conflicts of interest with any companies or organization whose products or services may be discussed in this article.
: Neither human nor animal participants were recruited for this study. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) is a nationally validated, risk-adjusted, outcomes-based database used to measure and improve the quality of surgical care. Data are retrospective de-identified variables regarding surgical procedures and outcomes. Therefore, the University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center (UH CMC) Institutional Review Board granted an exemption for this study. The IRB exemption protocol was approved on August 26, 2020.
: Informed consent was not required for this study given the utilization of retrospective de-identified variables. The University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center (UH CMC) Institutional Review Board granted an exemption for this study on August 26, 2020.