Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 11 December 2019
Accepted: 12 March 2020
First Online: 30 March 2020
Compliance with ethical standards
: Funding was provided by KavoKerr (KaVo Dental GmbH Head Office, Bismarckring 39, 88400 Biberach/Riß, Germany) in contributing the digital dental sensors, the real tooth phantom as well as the Nomad Pro 2 handheld X-ray device as a loan for this investigation. There was no funding in the form of monetary payments for this study. Uwe Zeller has an active consulting agreement with KaVoKerr in the field of regulatory affairs and standardisation. Authors, Julia Nitschke, Lara Schorn, Henrik Holtmann, Jörg Handschel, David Sonntag and Julian Lommen declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Duesseldorf (Study number: 2018-162-KFogU). Trial registration of prospective trials: Central Study Register of Duesseldorf University Hospital, Registration-ID: 2018064716. Additionally, this study was approved by the district government of North Rhine-Westphalia due to the use of X-ray radiation (approval 772/18).