Funding for this research was provided by:
National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1 TR000457-06)
HSS Anesthesiology Department Research and Education Fund
Received: 1 February 2017
Accepted: 26 August 2017
First Online: 6 November 2017
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: Michael K. Urban, MD, PhD; Kristy M. Labib, MD; Shane C. Reid, MBS, BA; Amanda K. Goon, BA; and Valeria Rotundo have declared that they have no conflict of interest. Frank P. Cammisa Jr., MD reports royalties for patent with NuVasive. Federico P. Girardi, MD reports royalties paid for patents with DePuy Spine, LANX, Inc., NuVasive, and Ortho Development Corp., outside the work.
: All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (5).
: Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
: Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the online version of this article.