Text and Data Mining valid from 2018-04-25
First Online: 25 April 2018
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
: De-identified patient information is freely available to all institutional members who comply with the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Data Use Agreement. The Data Use Agreement implements the protections afforded by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and the ACS NSQIP Hospital Participation Agreement, and conforms to the Declaration of Helsinki.
: For this type of study on de-identified datasets, formal consent is not required.
: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the hospitals participating in the ACS NSQIP are the source of the data used herein; they have not verified and are not responsible for the statistical validity of the data analysis or the conclusions derived by the authors.