Received: 9 September 2019
Accepted: 3 October 2019
First Online: 17 October 2019
Compliance with ethical standards
: The authors JRR, LAA and CGL are salaried employees (with stock options) of Globus Medical, Inc. The Excelsius GPS™ robot described in this manuscript has been manufactured by Globus Medical, Inc. (GMI), where authors JRR, LAA and CGL are employees. Author KTH is a paid consultant to GMI.
: Institutional review board (IRB): this study was granted an IRB exemption determination from Western Internal Review Board (WIRB).