First Online: 24 June 2020
Compliance with Ethical Standards
: Jennifer L. McQuade has received compensation from Bristol-Myers Squibb and Merck for service as a consultant.Gabriel O. Ologun receives funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant T32 CA 09599 and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center support grant P30 CA016672.Reetakshi Arora declares that she has no conflict of interest.Jennifer A. Wargo receives research funding through grants from the American Association for Cancer Research Stand Up To Cancer, the NIH, and the Melanoma Research Alliance; has received clinical trial support from Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Roche/Genentech, and Novartis; has received speaker’s honoraria from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Illumina, Imedex, Omniprex, Gilead, PeerView, Physician Education Resource, Medimmune, and Exelixis; has received compensation for service as a consultant/clinical scientific advisor from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Microbiome DX, Biothera Pharma, Merck, and Dhome; has received compensation for participation on advisory boards from GlaxoSmithKline, Roche/Genentech, Novartis, and AstraZeneca; and has a patent application pending submitted by the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center that covers methods to enhance immune checkpoint blockade responses by modulating the microbiome.
: This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.